Nikolai Amosov – Soviet and Ukrainian surgeon, scientist, physician and writer.
The author of innovative techniques in cardiology, the author of a systematic approach to health ("the method of limits and load"), discussion of work in gerontology, the problems of artificial intelligence and rational planning of social life ("social engineering"). Academician of the USSR (1969) and the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Hero of Socialist Labor (1973).
Born in the village of Olkhovo in Vologda province. His mother was a nurse. Lived in poverty – the mother at work did not accept gifts and this served as a model for life. From 12 to 18 years at Cherepovets, in school, then a mechanical college, graduated and became a mechanic. He lived in poverty. Autumn of 1932 began to work in Arkhangelsk, a shift supervisor working on the plant for a large mill – the first five new building. In 1934 he married Gala Soboleva. In the same year his mother died.
In 1935 with his first wife, he entered the Arkhangelsk Medical Institute, graduating with honors in 1939. Wanted to deal with physiology, but empty seats in graduate school was only in surgery. In parallel, he studied by correspondence at the Industrial Institute in 1940 and also received an engineering degree with honors. During the war, was a field surgeon, operated on more than 4,000 wounded. In 1944, entered into a second marriage (to a nurse Lydia Denisenko).
Moved from Bryansk in Kiev in 1952, Amosov at the Kiev Medical Institute has created the first in the country specialized department for the Study of lung resection. In March 1953 he defended his doctoral dissertation and the chair the Kiev Medical Institute. On January 1, 1957 on the basis of the Ukrainian Institute of Tuberculosis was opened a new clinic of Thoracic Surgery, headed by N.Amosov, which became a center for cardio – vascular and lung surgery in the Ukraine and a training place for Thoracic Surgery and Anesthesiology. In 1960 he headed the Department of Biocybernetics Institute of Cybernetics of Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. In 1968 he was appointed deputy director for science of the Kiev Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Thoracic Surgery. At the same time he headed the Department of Thoracic Surgery of Postgraduate Medical Institute (1955-1970). Since 1983 – Director, Institute of Cardiovascular Surgery. For his outstanding services to Ukraine Nikolai Amosov was awarded as "Person of the Century in Ukraine." From 1962 to 1979, was elected deputy of the Supreme Soviet.
December 12, 2002 died because of a heart attack, buried in the Baikove cemetery in Kiev.